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Functionalized Fullerene for Inhibition of SARS-CoV-2 Variants

Abstract Figure

Abstract Figure
Image Credit: (c) 2023 ACS

Dusica Maysinger, Issan Zhang, Pei You Wu, Marten Kagelmacher, Haiming Daniel Luo, Jayachandran N. Kizhakkedathu, Jens Dernedde, Matthias Ballauff, Rainer Haag, Adeola Shobo, Gerhard Multhaup, and R. Anne McKinney – 2023

The objective of this study was to establish if polyglycerols with sulfate or sialic acid functional groups interact with high mobility group box 1 (HMGB1), and if so, which polyglycerol could prevent loss of morphological plasticity in excitatory neurons in the hippocampus. Considering that HMGB1 binds to heparan sulfate and that heparan sulfate has structural similarities with dendritic polyglycerol sulfates (dPGS), we performed the experiments to show if polyglycerols can mimic heparin functions by addressing the following questions: (1) do dendritic and linear polyglycerols interact with the alarmin molecule HMGB1? (2) Does dPGS interaction with HMGB1 influence the redox status of HMGB1? (3) Can dPGS prevent the loss of dendritic spines in organotypic cultures challenged with lipopolysaccharide (LPS)? LPS plays a critical role in infections with Gram-negative bacteria and is commonly used to test candidate therapeutic agents for inflammation and endotoxemia. Pathologically high LPS concentrations and other stressful stimuli cause HMGB1 release and post-translational modifications. We hypothesized that (i) electrostatic interactions of hyperbranched and linear polysulfated polyglycerols with HMGB1 will likely involve sites similar to those of heparan sulfate. (ii) dPGS can normalize HMGB1 compartmentalization in microglia exposed to LPS and prevent dendritic spine loss in the excitatory hippocampal neurons. We performed immunocytochemistry and biochemical analyses combined with confocal microscopy to determine cellular and extracellular locations of HMGB1 and morphological plasticity. Our results suggest that dPGS interacts with HMGB1 similarly to heparan sulfate. Hyperbranched dPGS and linear sulfated polymers prevent dendritic spine loss in hippocampal excitatory neurons. MS/MS analyses reveal that dPGS-HMGB1 interactions result in fully oxidized HMGB1 at critical cysteine residues (Cys23, Cys45, and Cys106). Triply oxidized HMGB1 leads to the loss of its pro-inflammatory action and could participate in dPGS-mediated spine loss prevention. LPG-Sia exposure to HMGB1 results in the oxidation of Cys23 and Cys106 but does not normalize spine density.

Title
Functionalized Fullerene for Inhibition of SARS-CoV-2 Variants
Author
Dusica Maysinger, Issan Zhang, Pei You Wu, Marten Kagelmacher, Haiming Daniel Luo, Jayachandran N. Kizhakkedathu, Jens Dernedde, Matthias Ballauff, Rainer Haag, Adeola Shobo, Gerhard Multhaup, and R. Anne McKinney
Date
2023-01
Citation
ACS Chem. Neurosci. 2023, 14(4), 677. doi.org/10.1021/acschemneuro.2c00558