Interaction of Heparin with Proteins: Hydration Effects
Malicka, W.; Haag, R.; Ballauff, M. – 2022
We present a thermodynamic investigation of the interaction of heparin with lysozyme in the presence of potassium glutamate (KGlu). The binding constant Kb is measured by isothermal titration calorimetry (ITC) in a temperature range from 288 to 310 K for concentrations of KGlu between 25 and 175 mM. The free energy of binding ΔGb derived from Kb is strongly decreasing with increasing concentration of KGlu, whereas the dependence of ΔGb on temperature T is found to be small. The decrease of ΔGb can be explained in terms of counterion release: Binding of lysozyme to the strong polyelectrolyte heparin liberates approximately three of the condensed counterions of heparin, thus increasing the entropy of the system. The dependence of ΔGb on T, on the other hand, is traced back to a change of hydration of the protein and the polyelectrolyte upon complex formation. This dependence is quantitatively described by the parameter Δw that depends on T and vanishes at a characteristic temperature T0. A comparison of the complex formation in the presence of KGlu with the one in the presence of NaCl demonstrates that the parameters related to hydration are changed considerably. The characteristic temperature T0 in the presence of KGlu solutions is considerably smaller than that in the presence of NaCl solutions. The change of specific heat Δcp is found to become more negative with increasing salt concentration: This finding agrees with the model-free analysis by the generalized van’t Hoff equation. The entire analysis reveals a small but important change of the free energy of binding by hydration. It shows that these ion-specific Hofmeister effects can be modeled quantitatively in terms of a characteristic temperature T0 and a parameter describing the dependence of Δcp on salt concentration.